Such an approach emphasizes the development, functioning, and principles of institutions. Milestones in NI describe the nexus of organization and society supposing that organizational structures express myths and reflect ideals institutionalized in their environment. While capturing, copying, and asserting these, structural similarity institutional isomorphism between organizations in society will be established. Organizational fields communities consist of all relevant organizations.
In section 4. Fundamentally, NI approaches differ in the dimensions or pillars and levels of analysis they privilege see figure 5, p. Thus NI is particularly suitable for a multi-level analysis of scientific productivity across time and space. The historical development of the German higher education and science system must analyzed considering also global developments, because on the one hand it had an enormous impact on the development of other systems worldwide, and, on the other hand, global trends affect the on-going institutionalization and organization s of science in Germany.
Intersectoral and international cooperation is growing and becoming increasingly important, leading to diverse networks within and between higher education and science systems worldwide. The classical, national case study is hardly longer possible, because macro units like countries are highly interdependent, embedded in global, regional and local relationships, such that borders between the global and the national dimension are increasingly blurred. Nevertheless, countries are units with clearly defined boundaries and structures, thus they can be handled as units to compare. The theoretical perspectives and different levels of analysis addressed here are displayed in Figure 5.
The focus of this perspective is on global and international structures and processes, which developed over time. Through this perspective, I explore global diffusion and formal structures of formal principles and practical applications. Combining historical and sociological institutionalism helps to focus on developments and processes over time on the meso level, to explain how institutions have developed and change d. To describe the transformation of knowledge production over the entire twentieth century, and to analyze different organizational forms that produce science in Germany, two prevalent theoretical concepts are discussed: Mode 1 versus Mode 2 science, and the Triple-Helix model to describe the relationship between science, industry and state.
In turn, the Triple-Helix model preserves the historical importance of the universities. This approach assumes that future innovations emerge from a relationship between universities production of new knowledge , industry generation of wealth , and state control. Data and methods In these analyses, only peer reviewed journal publications were used — as the best indicator for measuring the most legitimated, authoritative produced science.
This focus enabled an investigation of publications in-depth and over a year timeframe. Methodologically, my approach is based on a combination of comparative institutional analysis across selected countries and historically of the German higher education and science system, and the systematic global evaluation of bibliometric publication data see chapter 6.
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I focus on original research articles, because this type of publication contains certified new knowledge. From to , we selected data in 5-year-steps in the form of a stratified representative sample. From onwards full data is available for every year. Depending on the research question, either five or ten-year steps were analyzed. A detailed description of the sampling and weighting of the data can be found in chapter 6.
In consideration of the criteria above, I analyzed 17, different journals 42, journals were included into the database if we count the same journals in different years , and a total of 5,, research articles.
To prepare the data for this research, it had to be extensively cleaned and coded. From June to December , research in the archives of university libraries was necessary to manually add missing information, particularly organization location and author affiliations. In the field of bibliometrics, we find different methods to count publications.
This decision is based on the assumption that every author, organization, or country contributed equally to a publication. The absolute number of publications worldwide, Europe, Germany is based on a simple counting of research articles without duplicates, in cases of co-authored articles.
Summary of the most important results The empirical part of my work is divided into three parts. In the following sections, I will present the most important findings. For a better understanding and classification of the results of my case study, I embedded the German higher education and science system into the European and global context.
hevykykuka.tk dictionary :: berühmter Forscher :: German-English translation
The massive expansion of scientific production had and still has a tremendous influence on societal developments, beyond simply economic and technical developments, but rather transforming society. I show that higher education and science systems worldwide exhibit communalities, which have led to similar developments and expansion of scientific productivity.
The comparison of important European countries Germany in comparison with Great Britain, France, Belgium and Luxembourg uncovered the contribution of the development and spread of modern research universities and the extraordinary and continued rise in publication output see section 7. Within the global field of science, three geographical centers of scientific productivity have emerged over the twentieth century: Europe, North America, and Asia.
Especially in Asia, the growth rates have risen massively in recent years Powell et al. These investments have a clear impact on the scientific productivity of nations, yet there are important differences between countries in absolute production and productivity rates. As part of the higher education expansion and massification during the s and 70s, the numbers of researchers and students rose tremendously.
The growth of scientific publications thus results from the on-going institutionalization of higher education and science systems worldwide. The growth of publications is also explained by the steady growth in the number of researchers working within these growing — and increasingly interconnected — systems. Third, I could reject the argument of Derek J. Although radical historical, political, economical, and technical events see figure 11, p. The different institutional settings and organizational forms that produce science have an impact on scientific productivity.
The selected country case studies — Germany, Great Britain, France, Belgium and Luxembourg — demonstrate that systems with strong research universities are highly productive; they seem to provide conditions necessary for science. As a result, not only the number and quality of researchers is important, but also the institutional and organizational settings in which they are employed. With an annual growth rate of 3.
In , Germany produced 55, research articles see table A5. In comparison to Great Britain, France, Belgium and Luxemburg, Germany still leads in scientific output in Europe —comparing just the absolute numbers. The size of the country itself and the institutionalization of the higher education and science systems influence publication outputs, of course, with these absolute numbers in relation to other key indicators showing a different picture.
Standardized by the number of inhabitants, Germany published less articles per capita than Belgium and Great Britain. The number of researchers amounted to , FTE in The ratio of inhabitants to scientists was 1, Among these countries studied in-depth, Luxembourg and Great Britain had more researchers per capita than did Germany.
Wissenschaft, heile dich selbst
The interplay of the organizational forms of science in Germany between and On the basis of the analysis of the global and European contexts, and development of worldwide scientific productivity over time in chapter 7, I started the in-depth case study of Germany. Bridging this overview and the following in-depth analyses is a chapter on the institutionalization of the German higher education and science system see chapter 8.
Here, I described the most important institutions and organizations and the organizational field — universities, extra-university research institutes and universities of applied sciences. Furthermore, I discussed the differences between West and East Germany during their division — Summarizing the most important results shows that the development of publications in Germany follows global and European trends on a lower scale see figure 16, p.
Over time, Germany experienced pure exponential growth of scientific publications and a rising diversity of organizational forms that contribute to scientific productivity see sections 9.
First, the growth curve of scientific publications in Germany turns out as expected — it shows pure exponential graph, comparable with the worldwide and European development of scientific productivity between and Here, too, cataclysmic events such as the two world wars and the Great Depression as well as reunification had only short-term negative impact figure 11, p. Second, a detailed examination and comparison of the development of scientific productivity in West Germany and East Germany between and showed that the growth rate of Germany altogether was based mainly on steady growth of scientific publications in West Germany see figure 17, p.
The growth curve of the former GDR was quite flat and proceeded on a very low level. But that does not mean that other organizational forms were not producing science as well. The percentage share of articles is ultrastable and shows only marginal variations. The thesis that the proportion of university publications should decrease over time can be rejected for the period from to Fourth, although not only scientists within universities and research institutes publish their research in scientific journals, jointly these organizational forms have produced more than three-quarters of all research articles since Already in the earlier years, they produced a large number of scientific articles.
Other organizational forms also generate scientific knowledge for an extensive description of the organizational form matrix, see table 4, pp. Indeed, the universities have been the driving force of scientific productivity for more than a century. With their specific orientation to basic research and their linkage of research and teaching, they provide conditions that facilitate the production of science. Universities are among the oldest institutions with a high degree of institutionalization. Fifth, the analysis of the ten most research-intensive single organizations in Germany in the year confirmed the results.
Only universities and institutes were part of this group. A summary of publications of single institutes under their umbrella organizations shows that the institutes of the Max Planck Society and of the Helmholtz Association are the leading science producers in Germany, outpacing the scientific productivity of universities, but only when aggregating the contributions of dozens of individual institutes see table 5, p.
An analysis of single institutes shows that these research institutes cannot compete with universities, because of their size and the number of researchers. National and international cooperation of scientific research Finally, increasing internationalization of research has impacted on national and international cooperation. Through advancing globalization, national and international scientific cooperation increased in volume and importance.
Today, more than a third of all research articles worldwide are produced in scientific collaboration; only around a quarter are single-authored articles. Research networks are increasingly important, and researchers share their common interests on a research question, publishing their results in joint publications. Researchers, organizations, and indeed countries differ in the ways they organize their research and thus how they enable research and collaboration.
This depends on location, size, higher education and science system, the organizational field and organizations. Here, varying patterns of scientific cooperation were presented, showing a massive increase in scientific collaboration in inter national co-authorships over time. Only since the s have co- and multi-authored publications risen considerably : In , only a third of all publications were published by one author.
In , the proportion reached its lowest level with only one-fifth of all papers single-authored see table 6, pp. Countries differ considerably in their amount of collaboratively-written research articles. References Powell, J. Daher das dreimalige Eintreten der Konjunktion. Auch in der Forschung kommt es auf die Perspektive an, auf die geheimen Antriebe der Seele, auf das innere Ethos.
Der Stern der Weisen und die Wissenschaft. It was a beautiful old belief of the Greeks, that for every new born human being a star is lit in the heavens, which disappears at his death. The brightness and size of the star would correspond to the importance of the person: thus it was said of king Mithradates, who waged three wars against Rome, that a comet appeared at this birth whose tail covered a quarter of the heavens and remained visible for 70 days.
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That an extraordinary heavenly phenomenon became visible also when the Savior was born is told by the story of the star of Bethlehem in St. Matthew's Gospel. But when a biblical science came into being in the last century that examined all documents about Jesus' life very thoroughly and objectively, the star of Bethlehem raised various critical doubts. Wir haben seinen Stern gesehen im Morgenland und sind gekommen, ihn anzubeten.
We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him. Die Frage ist nicht von moderner Kritiksucht eingegeben, sie hat schon im Mittelalter die Bibelausleger in Byzanz beunruhigt. The continuation of the story also does not agree with scientific experience. When the Magi were directed to Bethlehem by King Herod, "the star they had seen in the east went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. Sie wichen damit ebenfalls den Schwierigkeiten aus, die sich wissenschaftlich aus dem Text des Evangeliums ergaben.
Sogar bei Tage konnte man ihn sehen. Dunkle Gasmassen ballen sich zusammen und erhitzen sich dabei, bis eines Tages der Ruf erschallt: "Es werde Licht! Man tat es damals, , allgemein mit riesiger Begeisterung.